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Title:

Bond Dipole Moments

Description:

London dispersion forces. Induced, temporary dipole caused by electron … Intermolecular attractions: London or Van der Waals forces (weak) b.p. CH4 -160 C … – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Transcript and Presenter’s Notes


Title: Bond Dipole Moments

1
Bond Dipole Moments

  • are due to differences in electronegativity.
  • depend on the amount of charge and distance of
    separation.
  • In debyes,
  • ? 4.8 x ? (electron charge) x d(angstroms)

2
Molecular Dipole Moments

  • Depend on bond polarity and bond angles.
  • Vector sum of the bond dipole moments.
  • Lone pairs of electrons contribute to the dipole
    moment.

3
Intermolecular Forces

  • Strength of attractions between molecules
    influence m.p., b.p., and solubility esp. for
    solids and liquids.
  • Classification depends on structure.
  • Dipole-dipole interactions
  • London dispersions
  • Hydrogen bonding
    gt

4
Intermolecular Forces

  • Dipole-dipole polar molecules with a positive
    and negative end
  • Positive attracted to negative of other
    molecules, repelled by positive of others

5
London dispersion forces

  • Induced, temporary dipole caused by electron
    cloud of other molecules
  • Weaker than dipole-dipole except in large
    molecules
  • Branching lowers b.p. because of decreased
    surface contact between molecules.

6
Physical Properties for Alkanes

  • Solubility hydrophobic
  • Density less than 1 g/mL
  • Boiling points increase with increasing carbons
    (little less for branched chains).
  • Melting points increase with
    increasing carbons (less for odd-number of
    carbons).

7
Boiling Points of Alkanes
Branched alkanes have less surface area
contact, so weaker intermolecular forces.
gt
8
Melting Points of Alkanes
Branched alkanes pack more efficiently into a
crystalline structure, so have higher m.p.
gt
9
Structure-property relationships
Intermolecular attractions London or Van der
Waals forces (weak)
b.p. CH4 -160ºC C2H6 -89 C3H8 -42 n-C4H10 -0.
4 n-C5H10 36
vs
Branching lowers b.p.
greater surface area for attraction
10

  • Melting Points In general, branching decreases
    mp for isomeric hydrocarbons. Branching gives a
    more compact 3-D structure which packs more
    easily into a solid structure and increases the
    mp.

bp 50 0C mp -98 0C

bp 60 0C mp -154 0C

bp 58 0C mp -135 0C

11
Hydrogen bonding

  • H-bond donor NH, OH
  • H-bond acceptor lone pair of e-s on O, N.
  • Not a true bond, a strong IMF

12
Boiling Points and Intermolecular Forces
13
Solubility

  • Like dissolves like
  • Polar solutes dissolve in polar solvents.
  • Nonpolar solutes dissolve in nonpolar solvents.
  • Molecules with similar intermolecular forces will
    mix freely.
    gt

14
Ionic Solute with Polar Solvent
Hydration releases energy. Entropy increases.
gt
15
Ionic Solute withNonpolar Solvent
gt
16
Nonpolar Solute withNonpolar Solvent
gt
Small energy change but Entropy increases.
17
Nonpolar Solute with Polar Solvent
gt

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